Rene Descartes, also known as the Latin Cartesius, was one of the world’s great philosophers. The Frenchman was born in The Hague en Touraine on March 31, 1596 and is considered the father of modern philosophy. His work and direction of influence influenced Spinoza, Hobbes, Kant and Leibniz.
The strength of the soul is not enough without the knowledge of the truth. There is a big difference between decisions that are based on a false opinion and those that are based only on knowing the truth, because if we follow the latter we are sure that we will not regret them and we will never repent, while following- at first we are always filled with regrets and repentance when we discover their error.


There are two kinds of rage: one that is very quick and strong on the outside, but still has a small effect and can be easily calmed, the other, which is not so clear at first, but which gnaws more heart and has more dangerous effects.
Those endowed with much gentleness and much love are most prone to the first kind of rage. For she does not come from a deep hatred, and from a sudden repulsion, because having much affection, they are interested in those they love as in their own person.


Joy is an emotion pleasing to the soul produced by tasting the good that the brain’s impressions portray to the soul as its own. Joy comes from the conviction that we have a certain good, and the sadness from the belief that we have a certain evil or a certain shortcoming.


Indifference extends not only to things of which the intellect has no knowledge, but in general to all those which it does not discover with perfect clarity, when the will makes a decision. Knowledge by the intellect must always precede the determination of the will, and the deprivation which constitutes the form of error exists precisely through this misuse of free will.


Desire is a turmoil of the soul that causes it to want for the future things that it represents as convenient. The desire we have when we long for a certain good is accompanied by love and then hope and joy, while the same desire when we long to turn away from evil contrary to this good, is accompanied by hatred, fear, and sadness, of which the cause is considered contrary to itself.

I doubt

I doubt it, so I think. I think so I exist. There is, so God is.


By God I mean an infinite, eternal, immutable, independent, omniscient, omnipotent, and by which I myself, and all other things that have been created and produced.


Where the errors are born
It is known that only from the fact that the will being much broader and broader than the intellect, it does not fall within the same limits, but extends to things he does not understand, which are indifferent in themselves, they make her wander with extreme ease, and choose evil instead of good or false for truth.


Our thoughts are of two kinds, namely: some are the actions of the soul, others are its passions. What I call his actions are all our wills, because we experience that they come straight from our soul and seem to depend only on him.
On the contrary, they can generally be called passions, all kinds of perceptions or knowledge that are in us, because often our soul does not do what they are and because it always receives them from the things that are represented by them.


Jealousy is a kind of fear related to the desire to keep control of a good. It does not come so much from the merits of the reason that we might think we might lose it as from the high price we place on it, which makes us scrutinize the slightest pretexts of suspicion and we take them as very good reasons. Because we need to be more careful about keeping things that are very large than those that are smaller, this passion can be fair and honorable in some cases. Besides, this passion is only related to suspicion and distrust, because trying to avoid evil when you have a real reason to be afraid does not mean, does not mean, frankly, to be jealous.


Intuition is the confident conception of a simple and careful mind, which appears only from the light of reason and is more certain than deduction.


How do very different passions come together because they are forms of love? It is not necessary to distinguish as many kinds of love as there are different objects that we can love. For example, though, the passions that an ambitious man has for glory, a miser for money, a drunkard for wine, a brutal one for a woman he wants to rape, a man of honor for his boyfriend or girlfriend and a good father for his children, they differ greatly from each other, yet, in that they are forms of manifestation of love, they are alike.

But the first four have love only for the possession of the objects to which their passion refers, having no love at all for the objects themselves, towards which they feel only a desire mixed with other special passions.
On the other hand, the love that a good father nurtures for his children is so pure that he does not want to have anything from them and does not want to control them in any way other than he owns them, nor to cling to them more closely than now, looking upon them as other incarnations of himself, he pursues their good as his own, and even more carefully.

The affection that bridesmaids have for their friends is of the same nature, though seldom is it so perfect, and the affection they have for their girlfriend is largely due to such love, but to some extent to the other. .


Doubt is the beginning of science.


Most rules of logic are used to explain well-known things to another person or to talk without judging unknown things.


The greatest pride or self-loathing proves the greatest weakness of the soul.


Only mathematicians could find some proofs, that is, safe and obvious reasoning.


Seek to defeat yourself better than fate and change your desires rather than world order.


Perfect numbers, like perfect people – are very rare.


Every problem I solved became a rule that then helped me solve other problems.


The first foundation of virtue is to keep our being, namely, leading us by reason. He who does not know himself does not know the foundation of any virtue. Then to act by virtue is only to act according to the command of reason.
Whoever, therefore, does not know himself at all and, therefore, does not know any virtue, he acts the least of virtue, that is, he is the most powerless of the soul.


Regret is also a kind of sadness with a special bitterness in that it is always related to a certain despair and the memory of the pleasure that pleasure has given us. For we never regret but the good that we have enjoyed and that we have lost to such an extent that we have no hope of regaining it at the time and in the way we regret it.


Because our senses sometimes deceive us, there is no such thing as imagining them.


Every man can account for the strength or weakness of the soul or precisely as a result of these struggles, for those in whom by nature, the will can most easily overcome the passions and stop the movements of the body which accompanies them undoubtedly have the strongest souls, and the weakest souls are those whose will is not determined to follow certain judgments, but is always driven by the passions of the present moment, which, being often opposed to one another, draw the soul in turn to their side, and, doing so. to fight even against himself, bring him into the most crying state he can reach.


How sadness makes us pale. Sadness, narrowing the orifices of the heart, causes the blood to flow more slowly through the veins, and becoming colder and thicker, needing less space in them, so that it recedes into the widest veins, which are the closest from the heart, the blood leaves the farthest veins.
Among the most visible being those of the face, it appears pale and emaciated, especially when the sadness is great or when it overwhelms us, as happens in fear, whose surprise strengthens the action that tightens the heart.


The will cannot be called free cause, but only necessary. Will is only a certain way of thinking, every volition cannot exist, nor be determined by action, unless it is determined by another cause, and this again by another, and so on indefinitely. So, in any case, the will is conceived, it demands a cause by which it is determined to exist and to act, and therefore it cannot be called a free cause, but only necessary or constrained.
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